The manufacturing process: from Nature to the manufactured good.
- We get raw materials from Nature.
- We process them to make materials (ready to use).
- We make goods with these materials.
A few examples:
|RAW MATERIALS||MATERIALS||MANUFACTURED GOODS|
wool, silk, hides, oil, natural gas
cotton, wood, cork, linen, coal
marble, clay, iron
-Prefabricated wood (plywood, chipboard, fibreboard, hardboard)
Furniture, paper, tool handles
METALS & alloys
Ferrous metals (with iron)
pure iron, steel, cast iron
Non ferrous metals (without iron)
aluminium, titanium, lead, tin, zinc, copper, bronze, brass
|Structural components, electrical components, machine parts, tools|
oil, coal, natural gas, vegetable materials (cellulose) and animal proteins, made into cellophane, PVC & rubber
Packaging, toys, containers
natural (wool, cotton, silk)
synthetic from plastic (nylon, lycra)
Thread for making textiles with different uses.
from large rocks to fine sand, processed into marble, slate, glass & plaster
Construction materials (wall coverings, glass, plaster)
clay transformed into ceramics by firing
Construction (bricks, roofing tiles), plates and bowls, sinks, decorative objects, porcelain, earthenware
Properties of materials
|Hardness||resists deformation or penetration on its surface||Glass, iron, diamond, titanium, aluminium|
|Resiliency||resists physical impacts.||Stone|
|Fragility||breaks, deforms or shatters under sudden impact||Glass, porcelain, cooked clay|
Strength or internal resistance
|ability to bear, without breaking or deforming, all types of forces (compression, tension, bending, torsion or shear forces)||a framework structure|
|Tensile strength||resists tension without permanently deforming||chain, rope|
|Ductility||stretches without breaking. Reacts to tension force by plastic deformation.||electric copper wire, iron thread|
|Malleability||flattens or bends without breaking. Reacts to compression force by plastic deformation.||Aluminium foils, plastic film|
|Elasticity||can be reshaped but regains its initial shape when external forces disappear.||Diving board, elastic band, metal spring|
|Plasticity||can be reshaped in all directions without returning to its original shape when external forces disappear.||uncooked pizza dough, uncooked clay|
|Colour||the appearance of objects according to the type of light they reflect||Glass, chalk, gold, coal|
|Density||the quantity of mass in a certain volume.||Wood, iron, air|
|Conductivity||ability to allow the passage of electricity, heat or sound||Water, metals|
|Resistivity (insulation)||ability to block the passage of electricity, heat or sound||Air, wood, plastic, porcelain|
|Magnetism||ability to be attracted or repelled by a magnet, which comes from a mineral called magnetite. Magnets can be natural or artificial and always have two poles||Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co) and their alloys.|
A material may have several of these properties simultaneously, at least to a certain degree.
For example, a mobile phone is hard, resilient and has some tensile strength.
HOW IT'S MADE?
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Wood - Utility Pole
Wood - Hardwood floors
Wood - HDF & MDF
Metal - Steel forging
Metal - Car Engines
Plastic - bottles and jars
Plastic - kayac
Ceramic - Tiles
Textile - Cotton yarns
Textile - Jeans