The manufacturing process: from Nature to the manufactured good.

  1. We get raw materials from Nature.
  2. We process them to make materials (ready to use).
  3. We make goods with these materials.

A few examples:


animal origin

wool, silk, hides, oil, natural gas

vegetable origin

cotton, wood, cork, linen, coal      

mineral origin

marble, clay, iron




Wood Derivatives

  -Prefabricated wood (plywood, chipboard, fibreboard, hardboard)

  -Cellulose materials

Furniture, paper, tool handles

METALS & alloys

Ferrous metals (with iron)

 pure iron, steel, cast iron

Non ferrous metals (without iron)

 aluminium, titanium, lead, tin, zinc, copper, bronze, brass

Structural components, electrical components, machine parts, tools


oil, coal, natural gas, vegetable materials (cellulose) and animal proteins, made into cellophane, PVC & rubber

Packaging, toys, containers


natural (wool, cotton, silk)

synthetic from plastic (nylon, lycra)

Thread for making textiles with different uses.


from large rocks to fine sand, processed into marble, slate, glass & plaster

Construction materials (wall coverings, glass, plaster)


clay transformed into ceramics by firing

Construction (bricks, roofing tiles), plates and bowls, sinks, decorative objects, porcelain, earthenware


Properties of materials 

Property Definition Example Image
Hardness resists deformation or penetration on its surface Glass, iron, diamond, titanium, aluminium  
Resiliency resists physical impacts. Stone  
Fragility breaks, deforms or shatters under sudden impact Glass, porcelain, cooked clay  

Strength or internal resistance

ability to bear, without breaking or deforming, all types of forces (compression, tension, bending, torsion or shear forces) a framework structure  
Tensile strength resists tension without permanently deforming chain, rope  
Ductility stretches without breaking. Reacts to tension force by plastic deformation. electric copper wire, iron thread  
Malleability flattens or bends without breaking. Reacts to compression force by plastic deformation. Aluminium foils, plastic film  
Elasticity can be reshaped but regains its initial shape when external forces disappear. Diving board, elastic band, metal spring  
Plasticity can be reshaped in all directions without returning to its original shape when external forces disappear. uncooked pizza dough, uncooked clay  
Colour the appearance of objects according to the type of light they reflect Glass, chalk, gold, coal  
Density the quantity of mass in a certain volume. Wood, iron, air  
Conductivity ability to allow the passage of electricity, heat or sound Water, metals  
Resistivity (insulation) ability to block the passage of electricity, heat or sound Air, wood, plastic, porcelain  
Magnetism ability to be attracted or repelled by a magnet, which comes from a mineral called magnetite. Magnets can be natural or artificial and always have two poles Iron (Fe), Nickel (Ni), Cobalt (Co) and their alloys.  

A material may have several of these properties simultaneously, at least to a certain degree.

For example, a mobile phone is hard, resilient and has some tensile strength.

Presentation about types of timber



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Wood - Utility Pole


Wood - Hardwood floors


Wood - HDF & MDF


Metal - Steel forging


Metal - Car Engines


Plastic - bottles and jars


Plastic - kayac


Ceramic - Tiles


Textile - Cotton yarns


Textile - Jeans